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Cait Oppermann

Michael Graydon (Toronto-based the cheapest cheap online free shipping fast delivery Miz Mooz Leather Cut Out Sandals w/ Stud Details Tessa clearance Cheapest clearance clearance store BoWeJB
, who shot "Four Horsemen Walk Into a Bar" with Nikole Herriott): We [Nikole and I] didn't overthink it too much.

Michael Graydon
Daymon Gardner

Chili cheese fries. Send help. Photo: Daymon Gardner

Haas: I went to Best Buy to get a selfie stick and an attachment that would fit the iPhone to my tripod, so it would be still and straight like a DSLR. Let's say my equipment bag weighed a lot less.

Graydon : We found an adapter that would click the iPhone onto a tripod. Then, because the iPhone lens is approximately equivalent to a 35 mm lens on a DSLR, we bought a few accessory lenses, one of which made the camera more like a normal lens of around 50 mm. Another was a wide-angle and the third was so good for close-up shots, it would've been better suited for taking photos of ants.

Graydon

Gardner: I had already lined up two assistants, portable strobe gear, and some reflectors. When I found out it was iPhone-only, I kept the assistants and some of the reflectors but ditched the rest.

Gardner:

Graydon : In the car on the way over, we were joking that we should take the portrait with a selfie stick. And somehow the prop stylist had a selfie stick that she bought at a drug store to us within 10 minutes of that idea...at 8:30 a.m.

Michael Graydon + Nikole Herriott

The iPhone shot of James Murphy, Christina Topsoe, Justin Chearno, and Randy Moon of Four Horsemen in the March feature well. Photo: Michael Graydon + Nikole Herriott

Gardner: Usually, I feel like my camera is an extension of my hand. The iPhone was even more liberating: I was talking with subjects while shooting, and it kept everything really conversational and loose.

Graydon: I've been a photographer for about 20 years, and I've been through 8x10 cameras, film—you name it. In the past, the bigger and scarier-looking the camera you pulled out, the more intense and professional you looked. Now, you have to let go of the ego you attach to the tool, and the iPhone is the ultimate expression of that.

Graydon:

Haas: People eating at Milktooth thought I was a tourist gone rogue who was sneaking into the kitchen to take photos.

Opperman: I felt like a creep, because people didn't know I was shooting this on assignment, so they were like, "Why is this crazy lady taking so many pictures of me waiting on line?" On the street, when someone points a camera at you, you're like, "What am I doing wrong? Why is this person taking pictures of me?"

Opperman:
Photo by Gentl Hyers

Chocolate-Avocado Pudding. You know you want some. Photo: Gentl Hyers

If they randomize at the individual level, they would put all the eligible children’s names into a bowl, or a list on a computer, and run a lottery. Some children would get an iPad. Some would not. If they randomize at the school level, they would do this for the school names and some schools would receive iPads. In a phase-in/pipeline design, the individuals or schools who did not receive an iPad initially would be placed in a queue to receive it if the study found them to be effective and funds were available.

Beyond this simplified example, the RCT methodology can be adapted to a wide variety of contexts.

As with all human subjects research, RCTs are subject to rigorous ethical reviews to ensure that no human subjects are harmed during the research process.

The RCT approach is flexible enough to accommodate a variety of contexts and sectors. It can be used in education, health, environment, and so on. With a little imagination, randomization can be adapted to a number of different circumstances. Constraints and what RCTs cannot do will be discussed below. For now, here is a short gallery of examples of what RCTs can do.

Simple (one treatment, one control)

In a microfinancestudyby the AbdulLatifJameelPoverty Action Lab (J-PAL), a large Indianmicrofinanceinstitution,Spandana, identified 104 low-income neighborhoods in Hyderabad, India, which were potential locations to open a branch office. Prior to opening the branch offices, 52 neighborhoods were randomly selected to have an office open in 2005 – this became the treatment group. The remaining 52 neighborhoods remained “control” (receiving an office in the following years). Households were then interviewed 15-18 months after the introduction ofmicrofinancein the treatment areas.

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Multiple treatments/Factorial

RCTs may investigate multiple treatments against each other – or multiple treatments against each other and a control group.

A study inBiharandRajasthan, India,examined several treatments to address low literacy levels of children. One intervention focused on offering mothers literacy classes, assuming that more educated mothers would be more effective at helping children at home. A second intervention provided a guide to mothers on at-home activities which could enrich the learning environment for their children at home. A third intervention combined these two: mothers received both the mother literacy classes and the at-home activities guide. A comparison group received none of these services.

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Rotation

A remedialtutoring program in Indiaused rotation design. Rotation design refers to a situation where, for two groups, one group is treatment and one is control – and then, those roles switch, with the previously-treated becoming control and the previously control becoming treated. In practice, the NGO Pratham identified 77 schools in Mumbai and 124 in Vadodara. Pratham’s intervention was a remedial tutor (called a “balsakhi”, or “child’s friend”) who would meet with 15-20 students who were falling behind in their grades.

Randomization was “rotated” in that, in 2001, half of the schools received a tutor for grade 3, and the other half received one for grade 4. In 2002, the schools received a tutor for the previously untreated grade. In this way, the impact of treatment could be determined by comparing grade 3 students in schools who received a grade 3 tutor to grade 3 students in schools who received a grade 4 tutor.

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Phase-in/Pipeline

Often, budget constraints prohibit a full-scale roll-out of a program. These staggered roll-outs can thus be leveraged for randomized impact evaluations by simply selecting, by lottery, the areas which will receive the service first.

J-PAL’sdewormingstudyused random phase-in. For three years, between 1998 and 2001, massdewormingwas rolled out in 75 schools in western Kenya by the NGO International Child Support Africa. The 75 schools were placed in a lottery, with 25 schools receivingdewormingin 1998, 25 in 1999, and the remaining 25 in 2001. In this way, in 1998, the 50non-dewormedschools served as a control group for the 25dewormedschools.

View example

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In many situations, it is politically, ethically or administratively untenable to deny services to a control group. In some of these cases, an encouragement design can be used – randomly-selected individuals will receive a promotional script or advertisement alerting them to this already-available service. In these cases, control group individuals still have access to the same service, however they will not receive the same reminders to use it. By the same token, treatment individuals can still refuse service (as in most interventions).

AJ-PAL study in Tangiers, Morocco, worked with a local utility company –Amendis– which was already distributing drinking water (though take-up was less than 100%). The program was providing a subsidized interest-free loan to install a water connection.Amendismade this loan available to all eligible households; however, for the evaluation, a random subset of those households received a door-to-door awareness campaign and offered assistance with filling out the application. This promotion was the “encouragement” which pushed selected households (treatment) to sign up for the loan more often than those households which did not receive the promotion (control). In this way, the researchers were able to determine the impact of newAmendiswater connections on households.

In the end, because take-up of water connections was higher in the “encouraged” (i.e. treatment) group than the non-encouraged (i.e. control) group, these two groups could be compared. And since encouragement was randomly assigned, any difference in outcomes could be attributed to the difference in the take-up rates of water connections.

View example

Randomizing within the bubble

Sometimes randomization can occur within a “bubble” of eligibility. For example, aJ-PAL study in South Africaworked with an anonymousmicrofinancelender to identify 787 rejected loan applicants who had been deemed “potentiallycreditworthy”by the institution. (Applicants had been either automatically approved or rejected under the bank’s normal application process.) Within this sample of 787, this “bubble”, a randomly-selected subset of rejected applicants were assigned to be given a “second look” by one of the lending institution’s financial officers. These officers were not required to approve these individuals for loans, but they were encouraged to. (Thus, we can see that “take-up” in this case related to the financial officers approving applicants for loans.)

View example

RCTs share, with other impact evaluation methodologies, a number of the same tasks and options. For example, by definition, they must specify key evaluation questions . These questions could be things like: will deworming pills lead to increased school attendance? Will they lead to improved educational outcomes as well? Does access to microfinance lead to greater business investments? Is iron-fortified salt an effective way of decreasing anemia rates in the rural population?

Neuropathy . The Diabetes Control and Complications trial found some improvement in neuropathy with intensive diabetes control. [20] If this is not successful, further treatment should focus on analgesia. The most common neuropathy is bilateral distal polyneuropathy. Increasing doses of tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and benzodiazepines have been used with varying degrees of success. Several agents have shown promise for restoring the structural nerve damage that can cause neuropathy including laminin B2, immunoglobulin FI and FII, nerve growth factor, insulin, and neurotrophin-3. Gastroparesis is treated with metoclopramide.

Patients with diabetes are at increased risk for the macrovascular complications of CVD. Compared with a nondiabetic population, patients with diabetes have a two- to four-fold increased risk of CVD, and more than half of patients with diabetes die from CVD complications. [35,36] The increased CVD risks include coronary ischemia, stroke, MI, and angina pectoris. Guidelines from the United States and Europe consider type 2 DM to be a CVD equivalent, thereby elevating it to the highest category. [36,37]

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lists the common CVD risk factors associated with diabetes and recommended therapeutic goals. Practitioners should note that not all patients with diabetes have an elevated risk of a cardiac event, so some discretion may be used with the guidelines.

Table 3. Goals for managing CVD risk factors in patients with diabetes.

Abbreviations: ADA=American Diabetes Association; BMI=body mass index; BP=blood pressure; CVD=cardiovascular disease; HDL=high-density lipoprotein; JNC VI=Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; LDL=low-density lipoprotein.

Adapted from ADA and JNC 8. [31, 42] .

Guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia have been published by the National Cholesterol Education Program and by expert panels from the AACE, ACP, ADA, ACC, and AHA. The guidelines are generally consistent in recommending aggressive lipid-lowering management in diabetes.

The proposed LDL cholesterol level targets are as follows: [37,39]

These guidelines are based on findings from lipid-lowering trials that included diabetic patients and were confirmed by subsequent trials. [37]

Post-hoc analyses of diabetic patients who were included in lipid-lowering trials have supported the notion that these patients have comparable relative reductions (or perhaps greater absolute reductions) in the risk for CVD events than their nondiabetic counterparts. These data are summarized in the ACP guidelines. Blue Mapped lace up trainers free shipping new arrival outlet sneakernews cheap sale get authentic o02Gs
The ADA and AHA guidelines [19] suggest an LDL cholesterol level target of <100 mg/dL for patients with diabetes and an optional target of <70 mg/dL for patients with diabetes and CVD.

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Hypoglycemia occurs when the blood sugar is too low to fuel the brain and the body.Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body. The normal range of blood sugar, depending on the timingand nutritional content of thelast meal consumed,is approximately 70 to 140 mg/dl (milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood). If you have type 1 diabetes, your goal blood sugar range may be slightly different. Infants and small children with type 1 diabetes will have different goal ranges than adolescents or adults.However, consult your child'sdoctor for more specific information.

Hypoglycemia may be a condition by itself, or may be a complication of diabetes or another disorder. Hypoglycemia is most often seen as a complication of overdoing insulin in a person with diabetes, which is sometimes referred to as an insulin reaction.

Causes of hypoglycemia in children with diabetes may include the following:

An additional cause of hypoglycemia in neonates and toddlers includes a group of conditions called . This may occur as a result of abnormal cell development of the special "beta" cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin or from a mass in the pancreas. Hypoglycemia due to endogenous insulin in an older child may be caused by insulinoma or ingestion of sulfonylureas.Some children are also born with errors in their beta-cell metabolism that can lead to hypoglycemia. Other rare genetic disorders can also cause hypoglycemia.

Other causes of hypoglycemia in children are rare. However, hypoglycemia may occur after strenuous exercise, during prolonged fasting, or as a result of accidental ingestions, taking certain medications, or abusing alcohol.

Too much medication; for instance, too much insulin or oral diabetes medication

Medication mistakes. All families will, at some point, give the wrong kind of insulin for a meal or at bedtime.

Inaccurate blood-glucose readings

A missed meal

A delayed meal

Too little food eaten, as compared to the amount of insulin taken

More exercise than usual

Diarrhea or vomiting

Injury, illness, infection, or emotional stress

Other medical problems sometimes seen in people with type 1 diabetes, such as celiac disease or an adrenal problem.

The brain depends on blood glucose as its main source of fuel. Too little glucose can impair the brain's ability to function. Severe or prolonged hypoglycemia may result in seizures and serious brain injury.

The following are the most common symptoms for hypoglycemia. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

The symptoms of hypoglycemia may resemble other problems or medical conditions. Always consult your child'sdoctor for a diagnosis.

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